authoring & multimedia

     table of content
  1. How to use this page
  2. Class site
  3. Key terms
  4. Multimedia products
  5. Multimedia data types
  6. Designing a multimedia product
  7. Authoring and software systems
  8. Design principles
  9. Scripts and storyboards
  10. Defining and analysing the problem
  11. Designing possible solutions
  12. Producing solutions
  13. Project Evaluation
  14. Management
  15. Collaboration and group work
  16. HTML
  18. Tutorials
  19. Assessment
  20. Innovation in animation
  21. Program and registration
  22. Copyright and acknowledgements
  23. Home

How to use this page

This page has all the subject content that you will need to complete the required study for IST. You will find a range of activities called “portfolio”, “essential tasks” and ” weekly homework”. You are required to complete all of these tasks as they all make up a component of your assessment schedule. You are also expected to present your completed work on a Googlesite sharing this site with your teacher.

There are due dates displayed with each task. The Portfolio tasks will achieve a mark full marks for a well completed task, half marks for a incomplete but mostly completed and a zero mark will be given for a non attempt.The Assessments details may be found here.

Your work will be completed within the Cloudshare environment, however, an important security issue exists and you are required to ONLY use your school credentials for all online use within Cloudshare or external for example Voki.

The series of YouTubes are important to view as these will present to you visual detail that you may not see in the text. The scheduled IST end of Semester Examinations will be created from the content found on this site.

essential task 1
a) Create your own website, or add to your Cloudshare sites by visiting here. use your first name and initial of your family name so that others in the course will have a standard format to find your website. Never place any personal details on your website.

b) Share as an owner your website with your IST class teacher using their . This is a CEO policy for student websites.

c) Add to your website a avatar, embed a youtube video, with a A & M theme. Add a sentence as to why you selected this video.

View this tube to view a tutorial on how to use googlesites.

View more Radford University tutorial tubes on how to use googlesites.

essential task 2

a) Create a pages titled “Authoring & Multimedia” then read this section of sushi “Authoring & Multimedia” and summarise using all of the 14 headings provided. The addition of an appropriate image would be good.

b) Create a page titled “Authoring & Multimedia Key terms” and using the terms shown in this section of sushi and provide a meaning to each of these terms. Use this computer terms site here or Google to find the meanings. The addition of an appropriate image would be good.

c) A page or series of pages will be required to place all of your work. You are expected to clearly label each task so that the task can be located.


Multimedia is now all around us. Television was an introduction to this media format. Television used text, graphics, audio and animation to entertain, inform and educate  the viewer.

Multimedia moved on to Hard Drives and CDs and with the introduction of fast broadband Multimedia is now streamed on to the computer monitor, but in a much more interactive way than was the case with television.

Multimedia is authored using an authoring application and suitable hardware. Microsoft FrontPage and SharePoint is an example of a web authoring application. Photo Story3 and Moviemaker 2 are examples of a multimedia authoring application.

View a range of information about multimedia on these two presentations.


Key Terms

Multimedia products

Multimedia uses text, graphics, audio and animation to entertain, inform and education. Computer technology has added a further aspect to multimedia that was not available with film and television. This extra aspect is interactivity.

Multimedia uses a combination of the above features to convey a message. Interactivity allows the user of a multimedia product to control aspects of the product.

Multimedia products are in general used to educate, entertain and inform a user. Computer technology has also provided multimedia designers with the ability to manipulate data to create multimedia products such as games. Education is another way that multimedia has been used and information is conveyed often as an event occurs using a combination of text, vision and audio.

Multimedia data types

The following forms of data are included in multimedia:

  1. Text– is characters or symbols that we are able to read
  2. Hypertext – is text or symbols that when selected take the user to more information
  3. Graphics– are any form of images that provide information.
  4. Hypermedia– is a graphic that when selected take the user to more information
  5. Animations-moving graphics either path based or cell based
  6. Video– is sequential photographic images presented at speeds to create smooth motion
  7. Audio– is sound such as music, voice or special sound effects

Each of these data forms has special considerations when added to a multimedia product. Graphics are a compromise often between quality and file size of the graphic. A jpeg file format is preferable to that of a Bitmapped file due to the size. Audio, animation and video, also has this issue of size which could also be called a storage issue.

Extension task 1
Watch this video, these multimedia concept products here to obtain an idea about the current trends in Multimedia products. Now use these trends of emerging technology  to complete portfolio 1.


Hypertext Markup Language or HTML is the basic website creation tool. The code used in HTML instructs the browser as to how the data is to be displayed. The code comprises of text and tags, the tag also control all the elements such as colour, location of objects and multimedia.

an overview of how to do HTML

View this tube to see HTML tutorial. Suggest you skim sections.

a series of Youtube tutorials

View this tube to see HTML tutorial 1
View this tube to see HTML tutorial 2
View this tube to see HTML tutorial 3
View this tube to see HTML tutorial 4
View this tube to see HTML tutorial 5
View this tube to see HTML tutorial 6

a series of Website tutorials

View this web site to see HTML colours.
View this web site to see HTML basics to advanced use.
View this web site to see advanced use with HTML.
View this web site to see HTML help adding Java to your web site.
View this web site to see help adding HTML to your web site.

portfolio task 1  Due in Week 4
Practical task: Create a Multimedia Product
  1. Individual student research of an Innovative Multimedia hardware or software product, eg a smartphone, software, video or game.
    • Any multimedia product or device provide detailed specifications of your chosen product such as price, functionality, special features.
    • The podcast to be added to the second page
    • A video of the product
    • Images of the product.
  2.  Provide an audio track, that describes the product using Audacity.
    • Practice using Audacity is the main purpose of this task.
    • Prepare a script, using the script storyboard, that details the content, music, transitions, effects and timing.
    • This audio will be only 90 seconds of voice in duration.
    • Music will add a further 40 to 60 seconds to the length of the podcast.

3. Create two pages using html, editing with Notepad, that displays the product, insert the audio file, use DTP to make the site attractive and functional. Use advanced navigation.

  • The help site will help you to do this task.
  • These two pages require:
    1. Index page with detailed information about the product
    2. Navigation between the two pages and one external site


  • Basic html code may be found here
  • Use a navigation script from this site


Watch this video to see how to use Notepad to edit a HTML file.

weekly homework task 1 . Due end of week 2
Q 1. Provide the meaning of the term “multimedia”.
Q 2. Name and define the 7 data types used in multimedia
The answers are in the sections immediately above and post your response in your site.

Designing a multimedia product

Multimedia comprises of a combination of data types. Each data type adds a different aspect to the multimedia product.

Text is perhaps the most familiar format for information to be provided. This data type may be used in a multimedia product as you would use it in a Word document. Issues that may be necessary to consider using text include size and colour.

Graphics is a little different as it may be manipulated differently. Graphics being visual are very efficient, these graphics may be used as a background, charts and graphs, navigation, pictures and thumbnails. Issues that may be necessary to consider using graphics include clashes with other graphics or with text. Do they need to have a label or caption? Are the graphics relevant?

Audio, animation and video have similar concerns to be considered. Are the files selected relevant to the multimedia product? Do they add to the multimedia product? Is there enough storage available?

Extension task 2
Develop an idea that will enable you to produce a 60 to 120 seconds video. This may be used by capturing video with a video camera, smart phone or from an in-game capture application (F12 key).

There needs to be story line with added text, audio also demonstrate a range of transitions and additional video features, such as credits and titles.

Use Windows Movie Maker for editing.

Distribution of Multimedia

Up until recently the major distribution method of a multimedia product was optical discs, either CD or DVD. Now due to fast Broadband many organisations distribute over the Internet.

There are advantages and disadvantages of both of these distribution methods as displayed below in Table 1.

Distributed on an Optical Disc Distributed on the Internet
Advantages Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages
Copyright control Higher costs Low cost Download issues
Highest quality Compatibility Updatable Quality of data
Updatable issues Fast distribution


portfolio task 2.  Due in Week 5
Produce a Prezi that displays the major distribution method of a multimedia product, optical discs, either CD or DVD in Table 1.

This Prezi needs to contain a short written and graphical description of the Table 1 content. Download portfolio guide here

Authoring and software systems

Selecting the appropriate authoring tools is the most important part of making a multimedia product. The author must prepare the design carefully. One type of software may achieve the goal of creating the product, however, in general a number of authoring tools are needed.

There are three main authoring software systems that may be used these are:
• Time-based tools that creates the multimedia product organised by a timeline the content and events
• Icon-based tools, that creates the multimedia product which display icons that are used to control the content.
• Card-based tools, that creates the multimedia product as a series of pages, slides or cards.

portfolio task 3. Due in Week 6
Research and present a Game or movie as an example of a multimedia product.

  1. Create  two pages using html, editing with Notepad, that displays this product, insert an audio file, graphics. Use DTP to make the site attractive and functional. Use advanced navigation. Add to this a image script to display 5 images.
  • Basic html code may be found here
  • Use a navigation script from this site


Design principles

Many of us spend a substantial amount of time surfing the Internet. We see sites which are amazing and others that we navigate away from even at times before the page fully loads. Why do users mark some pages as favourites and not visit others. It may be due to the content, which may be unsuitable for the needs of the user, it may be the amount of time the page takes to load, but it is likely that the design principles are poor.

The layout of the page should be attractive, well balanced and informative. Issues that often arise in a poorly designed webpage include:

  1. Annoying sound effects which may be repetitive or inappropriate noise. An option to turn off the audio is a good feature to have on a web page.
  2. Over use of graphics, both static or animated. There need to be a purpose for graphics. Animated graphics often become more of a distraction than purposeful, so use them sparingly.
  3. Over use of text. To many words will crowd your page, perhaps use hyperlinks to more text if required or use a window that is scrollable.
  4. Use space in your page, to much content is also bad design.
  5. Colours should be selected from opposite ends of the colour spectrum, this ensures clashes in text, backgrounds and other objects does not occur.


View this typography presentation.

weekly homework task 2  . Due end of week 4
Q 1. Name the three main authoring systems and define them?.
Q 2. What are said to be bad design features in a website?
The answers are in the sections immediately above and post your response in your site.

Scripts and storyboards

Preparation of the multimedia product is important. Part of this preparation is that of the writing of a script and the creation of the storyboard. The script used in a multimedia product is used to provide an understanding of the aims and objectives, the audience it is directed at and the content that will be included.

The storyboard is not only written as is the case of the script. The storyboard describes each scene that will occur, using separate drawings. The storyboard would be used by the participants involved in the creation of the multimedia product, such as the film crew, director and actors. The storyboard also includes details about the media type to be used in a scene.

View this tube to view a tutorial on how to view scripts and storyboards.

Defining and analysing the problem

To develop a solution to a problem, an understanding of the needs to find a solution are. You need to ascertain the issue, think through the problem and identify issues that will impact on the solution. A key point to understand is that if you do not fully understand the problem, how can you find a solution.

The process of developing a solution to a problem can be called a Project. The requirements may be collected in a range of ways this may be through the examination of existing documentation, discussion with users of the system using survey or interview techniques. The design brief or problem statement may also be a source, as both of these will provide the project team with clear written statements that will provide detail.

Analysing the problem is important as this step is an indepth inquiry into the data that you collected and the problem and its requirements are examined.

These are called constraints and include the following factors that effect the solution such as technical, operational, financial and social and ethical issues.

The next step requires that a range of possible solutions are developed, this is followed by a feasibility study which looks at a possible solution considering the constraints and determines as to the virtues of a solution. An important aspect is called a cost-benefit analysis which relates the benefits to the client along with the cost.

weekly homework task 3  . Due end of week 6
Q 1. Why would you use a storyboard if you were creating a website?
Q 2. What are the two most important steps in the development of a project?
The answers are in the sections immediately above and post your response in your site.

Designing possible solutions

Designing a range of possible solutions to a design brief requires a problem solving techniques and tools to facilitate this process. View this site to read of a range of problem solving techniques here

Designing possible solutions using techniques such as
• concept mapping
• brainstorming
• observation
• research
• input/processes/output table
• storyboarding

Producing solutions

This is the stage when the project product is commenced. Often the product is produced as a prototype.

Throughout the making of the product, it is vital to ensure that the product is meeting the needs of the design brief. A prototype is a scaled down model of the final product or in the case of an information system the required data is minimal.

Project Evaluation

The evaluation of both the project development process and of the product is an important part of the project process. This is important as it will ensure that the best project methods to develop the project are used and to ensure that the product actually meets the criteria set by the project.

A criteria needs to be developed based on the specifications of the requirements of the solution that was decided upon to be able to measure the success of the product. This is called a evaluation criteria and includes whether the product functions in a way that meets the needs of problem, that it if a product works as expected or if it is an Information system it produces quality information. Today environmental needs are considered It is also important to ensure that throughout the project that ethical and social issues have been considered and adhered to.

weekly homework task 4 . Due end of week 8
Q 1. Provide the meaning of the term “prototype”.
Q 2. Why is it important that a criteria is used in the project process?
The answers are in the sections immediately above and post your response in your site.


Management of resources are important as constraints may exist. Constraints are limitations that may exist such as a solution having to meet a budget of $10,000 or a time requirement of four or six weeks to develop the solution. People have differing levels of skills and knowledge and the appropriate people included in the development solution should work collaboratively to share these skills. Planning is there for required so that these resources are used to the best solution being formed.

The management of the project has a standard that needs to be followed. These are initiating, planning, executing, controlling and closing.

Collaboration and group work

Collaboration basically means working with others, sharing the work load and bringing to the group specific skills. This process provides benefits such as immediate feedback and support from team mates as well as developing ideas with techniques such as brainstorming.

Collaboration is ideal for projects as these projects are often requires a range of skills and some projects may be quite large and have time constraints.

The group often will have what is called a group dynamic, a term that will often develop from the individuals who are involved in the group, and how they relate to the project strategies and to the other members of the team. To ensure that the group stays on task in an effective way, group protocols are needed, which include agreed rules of operating within the group such as behaviour and ensuring effective communication exists which may require that regular emails, phone calls or meetings are required.

Roles of the members of the group are also important to be determined and include the facilitator, timekeeper and a recorder.

weekly homework task 5 . Due end of week 10
Q 1. What is an example for the need of management of a project?
Q 2. What does collaboration mean Do you see any advantage in collaboration within a project?
The answers are in the sections immediately above and post your response in your site.

Assessment Task

You must complete portfolio 1, 2, and 3 then complete portfolio 4 as the major assessment. Portfolio 5 needs to be added to your portfolio 4. The portfolio needs to be added into your google site on the due dates as indicated.

portfolio task 4 Due in Week 8
Major Assessment
This assignment requires the student to create a website using the criteria set in the portfolio guide. Download portfolio guide here Download html files here . See sample web site here. See assignment help with specific html tags for this task.
portfolio task 5  Due Week 10
Advanced Java and use of Tools
Visit Dynamic Drive Then add three Java scripts to your major assessment task website. Two different scripts from the Text Animation section; One from the Image effects section; Add as a logo an animated Gif, that you have created using this link

Innovation in animation

View this tube to see innovation in animation

Program and registration

Program and registration documentation are available from here.



Made available under Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution Licence: here

The personal or classroom educational use, provided there is a link to TeacherTube here. TeacherTube terms and conditions state that videos may be downloaded for

The YouTube terms and conditions state that videos may be embedded in the media, provided there is a link to YouTube and that the appropriate non commercial use is made here

Reference to the text and included cd-rom, IST, information, software and technology 7-10 , author Peter Ware et al. isbn 0-7314-0168-9 is made as students are expected to purchase both items.

Reference to the NSW Board of Studies Syllabus documentations are made, with documentations available from here